Modern History important events main points in chronology
Modern History since Dandi March
Dandi March/Salt Satyagraha 1930
With 78 followers started from Sabarmati Ashram on March 12,1930
First Round table conference (1930)
- Held in London
- Boycotted by Indian National Congress
- Muslim League Attended it and the Moderates too.
Gandhi-Irwin Pact/Delhi Pact (March 5,1931)
Efforts of Sapru & Jayakar led to meeting between Gandhi & Viceroy Irwin
Second round Table Conference (Sep-1931)
pic: Wikimedia Commons
- Gandhiji Attended it
- Viceroy was Lord Willingdon
- British PM was Ramsay McDonald
- Failed on the pretext of Communal representation by British
Communal Award/Mac Donald Award (Aug.16,1932)
- Gandhiji was arrested on his return after failure of 2nd Round Table Conference
- British PM Ramsay Mac Donald announced announced his award on communal representation which extended to even depressed class.
Poona Pact/Gandhi-Ambedkar Pact (Sep 25,1932)
- Gandhiji took fast unto death against the communal representation award
- Meeting with Gandhiji & B.R.Ambedkar led to Poona pact where Depressed classes seats was increased from 71 to 147.
- The communal award was annulled or dismissed.
Third Round Table Conference (Nov 17 Dec 17, 1932)
Held in 1932
Government of India Act,1935
- Report of Simon commission submitted in 1930 formed the basis of Government of India Act,1935.
- The act abolished dyarchy in provinces.
- Introduced Provincial autonomy
- Made ministers responsible to the legislative and federation at the Centre.
- Opposed by congress but congress still contested election when constitution was introduced on April 1, 1937.
- Second World War broke & british without consulting Indian leaders about it, made India a party to the war.
- Congress demanded to declare India an independent state then only it can support in the second world war.
- But Viceroy Lord Linlithgow rejected the demand of congress.
- Congress Ministries Resigned (Dec 22,1939)
- Jinnah called Indian Muslim to celebrate the resigning as ‘day of deliverance’.
Pakistan Resolution/Lahore Resolution (March 24, 1940)
- Lahore Session of the Muslim League in March 24, 1940, passed Pakistan resolution.
- Rejected the Federal scheme of government of India Act,1935.
August Offer/Linlithgow offer (Aug.8, 1940)
- Offer was that the goal of British Government was to establish Dominion Status in India.
- Accepted in framing of a new constitution by the Indians.
- Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, President of Congress rejected the offer.
- Muslim League welcomed the offer.
Individual Civil Disobedience/Indivdual Satyagaraha (Oct. 1940 – Dec. 1941)
- Congress Working Committe started Individual Civil Disobedience on Oct 17 1940.
- Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi who later arrested on Oct 21, 1940.
- Pt.Nehru & Sardar patel was also got arrested.
- Later suspended by Mahatma Gandhi.
Cripps Mission (March-April 1942)
- World War was going and Situation was bad for British as Japanese Army was very near to Indian Border.
- Rangoon fell and Japan occupied South East Asia.
- British Government sent Sir Stafford Cripps with a view to secure Indian support in the war. He was a member of British Cabinet.
- Cripps proposed dominion status to the India after the war but rejected by all political party and thus ends in failure.
- Gandhi said that Cripps’ offer of Dominion Status after the war was a “post-dated cheque drawn on a failing bank”.
Quit India Movement (1942)
- On August 8, 1942, Congress held session at Gowaliya Tank, Bombay passed resolution called, ’Quit India’.
- Gandhiji gave a call of “Do or Die”.
- On Aug.9, 1942, all big leaders like Gandhi, Nehru and Sardar Patel were arrested.
- Rest of the leaders continued the struggle.
- Parallel government was established in many parts of India.
- Movement was however crushed by British government in India.
Gandhiji Fast (Feb. 10- March 7, 1943)
- Gandhiji took fast of 21 days in jail in reply to British government who was saying him to condemn the violence in Quit India Movement.
- Gandhiji did not condemn and held the government responsible for the violence.
C.R. Formula (1944)
Chakravarti Rajagopalchari (C.R) gave a formula supported by Gandhiji.
- Muslim league to support congress for getting its demand of complete Independence.
- After the war, the area of North – West & North- East India to decide by a plebiscite wether to form a separate soverign state or not.
- Jinnah wanted that only Muslim should participate in the plebiscite.
- V.D Savarkar and other Hindu leaders condemned the plan.
- Ended in failure.
Wavell Plan & Shimla Conference (1945)
- India’s goodwill needed for the war against Japan was expected to last longer.
- Then Viceroy Lord Wavell issued a statement called Wavell Plan.
- He suggested certain changes in the Viceroys executive council, with equal representation of Hindus & Muslims.
- Some 22 prominent leaders meet at Shimla to consider the Wavell Plan. But it faced a dead end as Jinnah wanted that only Muslim league approved Muslim should be represented in the council.
- Again the stumbling block was communalism.
Cabinet Mission (March-June 1946)
- Then British PM made a declaration on March 15, 1946 that the cabinet mission would visit India to make recommendation regarding constitutional reforms to be introduced in India.
- The Cabinet Mission consisted of Lord Patrick Lawrence, Stafford Cripps & A.V. Alexander.
- But no satisfactory solution was found.
- Muslim League accepted the plan.
- Direct Action Campaign (Aug 16, 1946)
- Muslim League launched “Direct Action” campaign, which resulted in communal riots in the country.
- On September 2, 1946 an interim government was formed.
- Congress led by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru joined it.
- Muslim league boycotted as it withdrew its earlier acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan.
Formation of Constituent Assembly (9 Dec, 1946)
- On December 9, 1946 Constituent Assembly formed with Dr. Rajendra Prasad as its President.
- Muslim League did not joined it.
British PM Atlee Announcement (Feb 20, 1947)
PM Atlee announced that British would withdrew from India by June 30, 1948 & Lord Mountbatten will replace Lord Wavell.
Mountbatten Plan (June 3. 1947)
- March, 1947 Lord Mountbatten replaced Lord Wavell.
- Lord Mountbatten announced his plan on June 3, 1947.
- His plan was to divide India but retain maximum unity.
- In case of partition, two dominions and two constituent assemblies would be created. Sindh would take its own decision. No Independence of Princely states, they would either join India or Pakistan (if created).
- Freedom would come on 15 August, 1947.
- Plan was accepted by Congress and Muslim League.
- Partition was criticized and Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan’s anguish in words is “Congress has thrown us to wolves”.
- The Indian Independence Act,1947 was passed in British Parliament. The act laid the partition of India and speedy transfer of power to Pakistan.
Integration of States
- All states except Kashmir Junagadh and Hyderabad had signed Instrument of Accession with India.
- Kashmir acceded to India in Oct 1947.
- In Feb 1948 through a referendum people of Junagadh decided to join India and the Nawab of Junagadh left for Pakistan.
- Nizam of Hyderabad was forced to acede to India in Sep 1948.
- By 1954 end, French colonial rule in Mahe, Chandranagar, Pondicherry, Yanam and Karaikal came to end and became part of India.
- Likewise, Portuguese Colonies in India like Goa, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu too inducted in India. Dadra and Nagar Haveli were liberated by freedom fighter in 1954. Indian troops liberated Goa, Daman and Diu from Portuguese in 1961.