Weekly PIB Crux April 2019 current affairs – Prelims 2019

Weekly PIB crux April  1-8, 2019

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ISRO LAUNCHED ENEMY RADAR SPOTTING SATELLITE

ISRO Enemy Radar spotting Satellite 2

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on Monday launched Defence Research and Development Organisation’s (DRDO) defence intelligence satellite EMISAT along with 28 nano satellites foreign satellites.

Launching vehicle was Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV C-45  EMISAT.

ISRO Sateliites can identify:

  • enemy radar,
  • number of active communication devices and
  • also map topography.

This is the first time ISRO has launched satellites in three different orbits.

Also in a first, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) invited common people to view the launch.

The satellite will monitor and give locations for enemy radar sites deep in their territory.
(With inputs from PTI)


Weekly PIB Crux April 2019

ART & CULTURE – ODISHA

Coming Lok sabha election will see two big festivals coinciding in the Berhampur, Odisha.

Two festivals are:

  1. Thakurani Jatra – It is biennial 32 day long festival. It is famous for colourful carnival spirit
  2. Danda Nata – It is 21 day long festival where colourful flags are a part. Night long folk dance and opera shows are part of Danda Nata.

danda nata
Danda Nata


POISONED CATTLE CARCASS KILLING VULTURES

Endangered Vultures

37 vultures belonging to endangered species died in Assam’s Sivasagar districtfeeding on the pesticide laced cattle carcass (dead remains of animals).

Forest officials from Vulture Conservation Breeding Centre (VCBC) did the rescue work for many vultures.

Most of the dead Vultures included Himalayan Griffon.

ABOUT VULTURES

  • India has nine species of vultures, six of which are found in Assam
  •  Vultures of genus ‘Gyps’
  • Oriental white-backed (Assam, critically endangered)
  • Long-billed (critically endangered)
  • Slender-billed (Assam,critically endangered)
  • Himalayan griffon (Assam, winter visitor from Himalayas)
  • Eurasian griffon (Assam,winter visitor from Himalayas)

Weekly PIB Crux April 2019

NON-NATIVE MARINE SPECIES INVADED THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

Recently its been seen that many exotic species(which doesn’t belongs to the galapagos) have invaded the Galapagos — underwater.

WHAT ARE GALAPAGOS ISLAND

Lies in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, Galapagos Island are like a biological ark where thrive Giant tortoises, swimming iguanas and numerous species that found nowhere else.

Galapagos Island is one of the world’s most protected places.

The Galapagos Islands is a volcanic archipelago in the Pacific Ocean and it is a province of Ecuador.

Charles Darwin visited Galapagos Island in 1835.


ISRO’S PSLV-C45 SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHES EMISAT

PSLV C45 EMISAT

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C45) successfully launched EMISAT along with 28 international satellites.

The launch took off from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.

This mission is also a first for PSLV-QL, a latest variant of PSLV with with four strap-on motors.

ISRO Telemetry Tracking and Command Network which took control of the satellite is siturated at Bengaluru.

After the separation of EMISAT, the vehicle’s fourth stage (PS4) engines were restarted twice to place the 28 international customer satellites precisely into a sun-synchronous orbit of 504 km height.

EMISAT weighs about 436 kg and  is intended for electromagnetic spectrum measurement.

The international customer satellites which include four countries namely USA (24), Spain (1), Switzerland (1) and Lithuania (2) and that together weigh about 220 kg.

The uniqueness of this PSLV mission is:

  1. It is a four strap-on new variant,
  2. The vehicle achieved three different orbits and
  3. For the first the PS4 stage is powered by solar panels.

Next mission which is in May 2019 where PSLV-C46 will launch RISAT-2B.

HOW THE PS4 ENGINE FITTED WITH  SOLAR PANELS WILL CONTINUOUSLY GETS THE SUN’S RAYS.

Sun Synchronous orbit: A satellite in sun-synchronous orbit has a constant sun illumination through inclination and altitude, which will be useful for consistent lighting and sun angle for anything powered by solar panels.

Also for sun synchronous orbits, the satellite over any given point on Earth’s surface will be at the same local solar time.

Since it is in sun synchronous orbit it will always get the sun’s rays and thus the solar powered PS4 stage engine will keep on moving.

Also getting the consistent lighting in sun-synchronous orbits, scientists leverage this in various remote sensing applications.

Why some satellites have a polar orbit?

Satellites that are meant to be in polar orbits are always at lower altitudes.

These satellites are used for:

  1. Monitoring crops,
  2. Forests and
  3. Global security.

Satellite Polar Orbit example

A polar orbit satellite travels north-south over the poles and takes approximately an hour and a half for a full rotation.

Polar orbits are low Earth orbits.

Why higher altitude satellites move slowly compared to polar orbit satellite

Higher altitude satellites orbit move slowly the reason being the circumference of the circular orbit is larger.

WHAT ARE GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES

Geostationary-Orbit satellites

Geostationary satellites are launched into orbit in the same direction as that of Earth on which Earth is spinning.

At a specific altitude,the launched satellite will match the exact rotation of the Earth.Generally this spot of satellite is 36,000 km above the Earth’s surface in high orbit.

Communication and global positioning satellites are often in a geostationary orbit.

Since the satellite always follows the Earth’s rotation being at the same point an observer here on the Earth will see it as fixed at same point. It will seem as fixed at the same point on the sky as it following the Earth’s rotation.

Earth’s force of gravity is enough to provide acceleration required for circular motion for the satellites placed in geostationary orbit.

Geostationary orbit satellite lie on the same plane as the equator whileGeosynchronous satellites can have any inclination.

Geosynchronous-Orbit satellite

Geostationary orbits fall in the same category as geosynchronous orbits only the difference in the fact that geostationary orbit satellite is being fixed over the equator.


Weekly PIB Crux April 2019

INTERNATIONAL MINE AWARENESS DAY AND ASSISTANCE IN MINE ACTION 2019

International Mine Awareness Day

International Mine Awareness Day and Assistance in Mine Action 2019 was observed on 4th April,2019.

Theme in 2019 ‘United Nations Promotes SDGs – Safe Ground – Safe Home’

The theme stresses that “All people have the right to live in security & all the people should not fear in taking their next step”.

Also United Nations launched a new strategy and campaign called “Safe Ground” so that none of the state or war zones be left behind.

Declared on 8th december 2005 at the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA)that 4 April of every year will be observed as the International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action.

This day is meant for creating awareness and establishment and development of national mine-action capacities in those countries where mines and explosives is serious threat for the safety and health of civilian population.


REIWA – THE NEW IMPERIAL ERA

Japan names the new imperial era as Reiwa which consists of two words ‘Rei’meaning ‘order’ & ‘auspicious’ and ‘Wa’ which usually meant as ‘peace’ & ‘harmony’.

Chrysanthemum Throne current affairs
Pic Credit: Wikipedia      Chrysanthemum Throne

Japan revealed the name of era that will define the new emperor’s reign when he takes over the Chrysanthemum Throne next month.

The Chrysanthemum Throne is the oldest continuing monarchy in the world.

Imperial calendars are still in use in Japan for private and public documents as well as computer records.

The name for the new imperial era, Reiwa was taken for the first time from an ancient Japanese book.

2019 was known as Heisei 31, or the 31st year of current Emperor Akihito’s rule.

“Reiwa” begins on May 1, 2019


UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE) AWARDED PM NARENDRA MODI

Zayed award to PM Modi

United Arab Emirates (UAE) awarded PM Narendra Modi with the Highest Civilian Honour named “Zayed medal” for boosting bilateral ties between the two countries, India & UAE.

The prestigious Zayed medal has been conferred to PM Narendra Modi by UAE President Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan.

Zayed Medal The ‘Order of Zayed’ is the highest civil award given by UAE.

Zayed Medal consists of a collar cantered by a medallion bearing the name ‘Zayed’ who is the founding father of the United Arab Emirates.

The Order of Zayed is awarded to Heads of Government / Head of State for their international relations with UAE.


Weekly PIB Crux April 2019

INDIAN NEW YEAR DAYS IN THE MONTH OF APRIL / CHAITRA

Indian New year Days

Various Parts of India welcomed the New Year on 6th April.

New year festivals like Ugadi, Gudi Padava etc were observed in different parts of the Country.

 

NEW YEAR IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE INDIA

NAVREH

Navreh celebrated by ‘Kashmiri Pandits’ to mark the  beginning of the Kashmiri New Year. Navreh is celebrated in the month of April.

Navreh is the religious festivals of the Brahmins of Kashmir(or Kashmiri Pandits)
Navreh have Rigvedic and Proto-Indo-Iranian roots.

Navreh 2019

In Navreh the Kashmiri Pandits makes “Thalis” (dishes full of assorted food items) which are to be kept overnight (one day before) so that they are the first thing one sees upon waking in the New year’s morning.


UGADI/YUGADI

Ugadi in Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh falls in the Chaitra month (Chaitra generally falls in the month of April).

Ugadi is celebrated by distributing Jaggery ( Gur / गुड़ ) and Neem flowers which is symbolic to sharing both sweet and bitter experiences of life.


GUDI PADWA

Indian New Year Days

Gudi Padwa which falls in the month of Chaitra according to the  Hindu calendar is celebrated in the state of Maharashtra .

Gudi Padwa is celebrated by hanging Gudi on the right side of the month of of their house.

Gudi is a bright yellow cloth tied to the tip of a long bamboo and copper pot placed in inverted on it along with a sugar garland.


Weekly PIB Crux April 2019

BAISAKHI

Baisakhi is the Punjabi New Year celebrated in the month of April by performing their folk dance, Bhangra and Gidda and feasting.

In Gidda the main dancers are female. In the dance form, women show the same level of energy which the men show while performing bhangra.


PUTHANDU

Puthandu is the Tamil New Year celebrated in the month of April by preparing Manga Pachadi a traditional food to ring in their new year.


 New year celebrated in the state of Kerala, India is

VISHU

Vishu festival is  celebrated in the state of Kerala to mark the New Year. It is the Festival of light celebrated with fireworks, decorating lights and bursting of firecrackers.

Observed by Malayali and Tuluva Hindus.

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